North-West State Medical University

Department of ophthalmology

" AFFIRM"
Ph.D., professor (Alexeyev V.N.)

Examination questions in Ophthalmology.

1.    Schematic construction of the eyeball. Three concentric layers of the eye.

2.    Cornea, its five layers, nutrition, innervation, main physiologic functions. Methods of its investigation.

3.    Sclera, its texture, functions. Methods of investigation.

4.    Iris, its arrangement, blood supply, innervation, functions. Methods of investigation.

5.    Ciliary body, its arrangement, blood supply, innervation, functions. Methods of investigation.

6.    Choroid, its anatomy, blood supply, innervation, functions. Methods of investigation.

7.    Retina, its arrangement, nutrition, functions. Methods of investigation.

8.    Anterior and posterior chambers, the anterior chamber angle. Functions, methods of investigation.

9.    Aqueous humor, the main functions of the aqueous humor outflow passages

10.The intraocular muscles. (ciliary muscle, the iris sphincter and dilator). Anatomy, innervation, functions. Methods of investigation.

11.The crystalline lens, its anatomy, functions, methods of investigation.

12.Vitreous body. Its anatomy, nutrition, functions, methods of investigation.

13.Optic nerve. Its anatomy, functions, methods of investigation.

14.The innervation of eyeball, its clinical peculiarities

15.Extraocular muscles, their anatomy, innervation, functions, methods of investigation.

16.Lacrimal apparatus: anatomy, functions, methods of investigation.

17.Orbit, its walls, clinical peculiarities.

18.Eyelids: anatomy, blood supply, functions, methods of investigation.

19.Conjunctiva, its three parts, anatomy, functions. Methods of investigation.

20.Investigation of Binocular Vision.

21.Eye position, Strabismus and extraocular muscle function.

22.Classification and Occurrence of Strabismus.

23.Examination of a Strabismus Patient (Hirschberg test, Binocularity tests, Differential Diagnosis, etc.).

24.Treatment of the Strabismus (Refraction correction, Surgical treatment, Optic and orthoptic treatment, Treatment of Amblyopia

25.Diagnostic value and methods of the visual acuity testing.

26.Methods of the visual field testing.

27.Diagnostic value of the visual field aberrations in neurology.

28.Significance of color vision errors and methods of the color vision testing.

  1. Diagnostic value and methods of the intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements (Schitz indentation tonometry, Applanation tonometry).
  2. Physiology of the act of vision.
  3. Physiological optics of the eye.
  4. Refractive Errors (hyperopia and myopia).
  5. Subjective and objective examination of refraction.
  6. Astigmatism, its types and methods of correction.
  7. Principles for prescribing spectacles.
  8. Presbyopia correction.
  9. The correction of refractive errors in childhood.
  10. Anatomic basis of color vision, methods of its investigation, types of color vision defects.
  11. Anomalies and malpositons of the lids (congenital eyelid anomalies, ptosis, dermatochalasis and brow-ptosis).
  12. Ectropion, entropion, trichiasis and districhiasis.
  13. Inflammatory disorders of the lids (Blepharitis, Hordeolum, Chalazion.
  14. Eyelid tumors.
  15. Disorders of the lacrimal drainage apparatus.
  16. Symptoms and diagnosis of conjunctivitis.
  17. Acute mucopurulent conjunctivitis: etiology, clinical features and treatment.
  18. Viral conjunctivitis: etiology, clinical features and treatment.
  19. Gonorrheal conjunctivitis: etiology, clinical features and treatment.
  20. Chlamydial conjunctivitis: etiology, clinical features and treatment.
  21. Trachoma: etiology, clinical features and treatment.
  22. Treatment of conjunctivitis
  23. Diagnosis of corneal infections.
  24. Corneal and conjunctival foreign bodies.
  25. Deep bacterial keratitis (corneal ulcer).
  26. Treatment of keratitis.
  27. Fungal keratitis, clinical features and treatment.
  28. Parasitic corneal disease, clinical features and treatment.
  29. Viral keratitis (Herpes simplex, zoster), clinical features and treatment
  30. Keratopathies, degenerative diseases of the cornea.
  31. Metabolic diseases of the cornea, clinical features and treatment.
  32. Congenital corneal anomalies.
  33. Pinguecula and pterygium, clinical features and treatment.
  34. Contact lenses: advantages and disadvantages.
  35. Corneal surgery (refractive surgery, indications for keratoplasty, etc.).
  36. Iris, its anatomy, blood supply, innervation, functions. Methods of investigation.
  37. Uveitis: Pathogenesis, Classification, Symptoms and Signs of Uveitis.
  38. Therapeutic and Diagnostic Aspects of Uveitis.
  39. Uveitis, Associated with Juvenile Chronic Arthritis, Lyme Borreliosis, Toxoplasmosis, Sarcoidosis.
  40. Acute Anterior Uveitis.
  41. Sympathetic Ophthalmia.
  42. Uveal Tumors: Uveal melanoma, Choroidal melanoma, Uveal metastasis.
  43. Vitreous body. Its anatomy, nutrition, functions, methods of investigation.
  44. Congenital Anomalies of the lens and vitreous.
  45. Lens Opacities and Cataract: Classification Signs and symptoms, Physical examination.
  46. Lens Cataract: Indications and methods of surgery, Visual rehabilitation.
  47. Vitreous Opacities (Synchysis scintillans, Vitreous Hemorrhage).
  48. Age-related Macular Degeneration (ARMD): Pathogenesis and clinical findings, Treatment, Visual rehabilitation.
  49. Diabetic Retinopathy: Etiology and pathogenesis, Classification, Clinical picture, Treatment.
  50. Retinal Detachment: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment.
  51. Inherited Retinal Diseases: Retinitis pigmentosa, etc.
  52. Retinal Artery Occlusion: Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment.
  53. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment.
  54. Optic neuritis: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment.
  55. Papilledema: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Ophthalmoscopic picture, Differential diagnosis.
  56. Optic Nerve Atrophy: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment.
  57. Toxic Neuropathies: Epidemiology, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment.
  58. Anatomy and Pathophysiology Related to Glaucoma (Aqueous humor dynamics, Intraocular pressure).
  59. Significance of glaucoma, its classification.
  60. Clinical Examinations in glaucoma (Measurements of intraocular pressure, Gonioscopy, Optic disc evaluation, Visual field testing).
  61. Primary open-angle glaucoma: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Medical, Laser and Surgical Treatment.
  62. Primary angle-closure glaucoma: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Medical, Laser and Surgical Treatment. An acute attack of angle-closure glaucoma.
  63. Secondary glaucoma: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Medical, Laser and Surgical Treatment.
  64. Congenital (developmental) glaucoma: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Medical, Laser and Surgical Treatment.
  65. Orbit, its walls, main orbital apertures, orbital soft tissues.
  66. Signs and Symptoms of Orbital Diseases.
  67. Orbital Disorders: Thyroid ophthalmopathy, Cavernous hemangioma, Orbital apex syndrome, Metastatic carcinoma of the orbit, etc.
  68. Orbital Disorders in Childhood: Orbital cellulitis, Lymphangioma, Dermoid cyst Neurofibromatosis, Rhabdomyosarcoma, etc.
  69. Abrasions of the Cornea, Contact lens abrasions, Recurrent erosion - signs and symptoms, first aid.
  70. Chemical Burns of the Eye - symptoms, diagnosis, treatment.
  71. Foreign Bodies in the Conjunctiva and Cornea - symptoms, diagnosis, treatment.
  72. Perforating Injuries of the Cornea and Sclera - pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, first aid and treatment.
  73. Intraocular Foreign Bodies - symptoms, diagnosis, first aid and treatment.
  74. Radiation Injury - symptoms, diagnosis, first aid and treatment.
  75. Blunt Trauma - symptoms, diagnosis, first aid and treatment.
  76. Retinal changes associated to Vascular diseases (arterial hypertension).
  77. Retinal changes associated to Neoplastic diseases.
  78. Retinal changes associated to Dysthyroid eye disease.
  79. Retinal changes associated to Connective tissue disorders.
  80. Retinal changes associated to Tuberculosis.
  81. Retinal changes associated to Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  82. Aspects of Pediatric Ophthalmology (Lacrimal Duct Obstruction, Cataracts in Children, Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)).
  83. Ocular complications from systemic drugs.

Chief of the educational section,

Ph.D.

(Levko M.)

01.11.2003