North-West State Medical University
Department of ophthalmology

"Affirm"
,
M.D., professor
(Alexeyev V.N.)

 

Topics of seminars.

 

8 semester

1.     Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye (Eye and Ocular Adnexa), Clinical examination of the eye and adnexa (History, Altered vision, Changes in appearance). Test.

2.     Act of vision. Visual acuity testing, Color vision testing, Visual fields, Visual field testing. Test.

3.     Optics and Refractive Error, Physiological optics.Myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism: their classification and correction. Principles of prescribing and using spectacles. Accomodation, its characteristics and pathology. Presbiopia, its correction. Ophthalmologycal passport. Test.

4.     Binocular Vision and Strabismus. Investigation of Binocular Vision. Strabismus, its classification and Occurrence. Examination and Treatment of a Strabismus Patient. Hygyene of vision. Test.

5.     Disorders of eyelids. Diseases of the conjunctiva (Symptoms, diagnosis and Treatment of conjunctivitis). Test.

6.     Disorders of Cornea. Diagnosis of corneal infections, treatment of keratitis. Keratopathies, degenerative and non-infectious. Congenital corneal anomalies. Uveitis. Pathogenesis, Classification, Symptoms and Signs of Uveitis. Acute Anterior Uveitis. Therapeutic Aspects of Uveitis. Test.

9 semester
 

7.     Lens and Cataract. Classification by morphology, etiology, stage. Signs and symptoms, Physical examination, Indication for surgery. Cataract surgery, Visual rehabilitation. Vitreous Opacities, Vitreous Hemorrhage. Test.

8.     Glaucoma. Significance of glaucoma, classification, clinical examinations. Therapy of Glaucoma (Medical treatment, laser therapy, surgery). Test.

9.     Ocular and Orbital Traumas. Perforating Injuries of the Cornea and Sclera, Intraocular Foreign Bodies. Chemical Burns of the Eye. Blunt Trauma. Test.

10.  Retinal and optic nerve diseases. Age-related Macular Degeneration (ARMD), Diabetic Retinopathy, Retinal Detachment, Retinal artery and vein Occlusion. Optic neuritis. Papilledema. Optic Nerve Atrophy. Test.

11.  Hystory. Diseases of sclera (scleritis). Diseases of lacrimal apparatus and orbit. Urgent situations in ophthalmology.

12.   The summary seminar. Test control, examination.

 

Questions for seminars (according to topics)


1. Anatomy and investigation of the eye Schematic construction of the eyeball. Three concentric layers of the eye. Cornea, its five layers, nutrition, innervation, main physiologic functions. Methods of its investigation. Sclera, its texture, functions. Methods of investigation. Iris, its arrangement, blood supply, innervation, functions. Methods of investigation. Ciliary body, its arrangement, blood supply, innervation, functions. Methods of investigation. Choroid, its anatomy, blood supply, innervation, functions. Methods of investigation. Retina, its arrangement, nutrition, functions. Methods of investigation. Anterior and posterior chambers, the anterior chamber angle. Functions, methods of investigation. Aqueous humor, the main functions of the aqueous humor outflow passages The intraocular muscles. (ciliary muscle, the iris sphincter and dilator). Anatomy, innervation, functions. Methods of investigation. The crystalline lens, its anatomy, functions, methods of investigation. Vitreous body. Its anatomy, nutrition, functions, methods of investigation. Optic nerve. Its anatomy, functions, methods of investigation. The innervation of eyeball, its clinical peculiarities Extraocular muscles, their anatomy, innervation, functions, methods of investigation. Lacrimal apparatus: anatomy, functions, methods of investigation. Orbit, its walls, clinical peculiarities. Eyelids: anatomy, blood supply, functions, methods of investigation. Conjunctiva, its three parts, anatomy, functions. Methods of investigation. Diagnostic value of the history (pain or discomfort, changes in appearance, etc.). Diagnostic value of the examination of the ocular adnexa (orbit, eyelids, lacrimal system). Diagnostic value and methods of the examination of the anterior segment of the eye (conjunctiva, Schirmer test, corneal sensitivity). Diagnostic value and methods of the assessment of the clarity of the refractive media.


2. Act of vision. Diagnostic value and methods of the visual acuity testing. Methods of the visual field testing. Diagnostic value of the visual field aberrations in neurology. Anatomic basis of color vision, types of color vision defects. Significance of color vision errors and methods of the color vision testing. Diagnostic value and methods of the intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements (Schiotz indentation tonometry, Applanation tonometry). Examination of the posterior segment of the eye (Ophthalmoscopy, Direct and indirect).


3. Myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism. Physiology of the act of vision. Physiological optics of the eye. Refractive Errors (hyperopia and myopia). Subjective and objective examination of refraction. Astigmatism, its types and methods of correction. Principles for prescribing spectacles. Presbyopia correction.


4.Binocular Vision and Strabismus. Investigation of Binocular Vision (Horopter Line and Retinal Correspondence, Stereopsis and Physiological Diplopia) Eye position, Strabismus and extraocular muscle function (Cover test, Cover-uncover test, Pupillary reactions). Classification and Occurrence of Strabismus (Concomitant exotropia, Latent strabismus, Paralytic strabismus, etc.). Examination of a Strabismus Patient (Hirschberg test, Binocularity tests, Differential Diagnosis, etc.). Treatment of the Strabismus (Refraction correction, Surgical treatment, Optic and orthoptic treatment, Treatment of Amblyopia. The correction of refractive errors in childhood.


5. Disorders of eyelids. Diseases of the conjunctiva.
 Anomalies and malpositons of the lids (congenital eyelid anomalies, ptosis, dermatochalasis and brow-ptosis). Ectropion, entropion, trichiasis and districhiasis. Inflammatory disorders of the lids (Blepharitis, Hordeolum, Chalazion. Eyelid tumors. Anatomy of conjunctiva. Symptoms and diagnosis of conjunctivitis. Acute mucopurulent conjunctivitis: etiology, clinical features and treatment. Viral conjunctivitis: etiology, clinical features and treatment. Gonorrheal conjunctivitis: etiology, clinical features and treatment. Chlamydial conjunctivitis: etiology, clinical features and treatment. Trachoma: etiology, clinical features and treatment. Treatment of conjunctivitis


6. Disorders of Cornea. Uveitis
Anatomy and physiology of the Cornea. Diagnosis of corneal infections. Corneal and conjunctival foreign bodies. Deep bacterial keratitis (corneal ulcer). Treatment of keratitis. Fungal keratitis, clinical features and treatment. Parasitic corneal disease, clinical features and treatment. Viral keratitis (Herpes simplex, zoster), clinical features and treatment Keratopathies, degenerative diseases of the cornea. Metabolic diseases of the cornea, clinical features and treatment. Congenital corneal anomalies. Pinguecula and pterygium, clinical features and treatment. Contact lenses: advantages and disadvantages. Corneal surgery (refractive surgery, indications for keratoplasty, etc.). Iris, its anatomy, blood supply, innervation, functions. Methods of investigation. Ciliary body, its anatomy, blood supply, innervation, functions. Methods of investigation. Uveitis: Pathogenesis, Classification, Symptoms and Signs of Uveitis. Therapeutic and Diagnostic Aspects of Uveitis. Uveitis, Associated with Juvenile Chronic Arthritis, Lyme Borreliosis, Toxoplasmosis, Sarcoidosis. Acute Anterior Uveitis. Sympathetic Ophthalmia. Uveal Tumors: Uveal melanoma, Choroidal melanoma, Uveal metastasis.


7. Lens and Cataract. Vitreous.
The crystalline lens, its anatomy, functions, methods of investigation. Vitreous body. Its anatomy, nutrition, functions, methods of investigation. Congenital Anomalies of the lens and vitreous. Lens Opacities and Cataract: Classification Signs and symptoms, Physical examination. Lens Cataract: Indications and methods of surgery, Visual rehabilitation. Vitreous Opacities (Synchysis scintillans, Vitreous Hemorrhage).


8. Glaucoma
Anatomy and Pathophysiology Related to Glaucoma (Aqueous humor dynamics, Intraocular pressure). Significance of glaucoma, its classification. Clinical Examinations in glaucoma (Measurements of intraocular pressure, Gonioscopy, Optic disc evaluation, Visual field testing). Primary open-angle glaucoma: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Medical, Laser and Surgical Treatment. Primary angle-closure glaucoma: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Medical, Laser and Surgical Treatment. An acute attack of angle-closure glaucoma. Secondary glaucoma: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Medical, Laser and Surgical Treatment. Congenital (developmental) glaucoma: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Medical, Laser and Surgical Treatment.

 
9. Ocular and Orbital Traumas.
Abrasions of the Cornea, Contact lens abrasions, Recurrent erosion - signs and symptoms, first aid. Chemical Burns of the Eye - symptoms, diagnosis, treatment. Foreign Bodies in the Conjunctiva and Cornea - symptoms, diagnosis, treatment. Perforating Injuries of the Cornea and Sclera - pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, first aid and treatment. Intraocular Foreign Bodies - symptoms, diagnosis, first aid and treatment. Radiation Injury - symptoms, diagnosis, first aid and treatment. Blunt Trauma - symptoms, diagnosis, first aid and treatment.


10. Retinal and optic nerve diseases
Retina, its arrangement, nutrition, functions. Methods of investigation. Age-related Macular Degeneration (ARMD): Pathogenesis and clinical findings, Treatment, Visual rehabilitation. Diabetic Retinopathy: Etiology and pathogenesis, Classification, Clinical picture, Treatment. Retinal Detachment: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment. Inherited Retinal Diseases: Retinitis pigmentosa, etc. Retinal Artery Occlusion: Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment. Optic nerve. Its anatomy, functions, methods of investigation. Visual Field Defects, Pupillary light reflex Color-vision testing in Neuro-ophthalmology. Optic neuritis: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment. Papilledema: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Ophthalmoscopic picture, Differential diagnosis. Optic Nerve Atrophy: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment. Toxic Neuropathies: Epidemiology, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment. Vascular diseases (arterial hypertension). Neoplastic diseases. Dysthyroid eye disease. Connective tissue disorders. Tuberculosis. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Aspects of Pediatric Ophthalmology (Lacrimal Duct Obstruction, Cataracts in Children, Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)). Ocular complications from systemic drugs.


11. Diseases of sclera (scleritis). Diseases of lacrimal apparatus and orbit. Urgent situations in ophthalmology.
Disorders of the lacrimal drainage apparatus. Disorders of sclera (scleritis) Orbital patology Urgent ophthalmology, first aid in main urgent situations.

 

 

  

Chief of the educational section, M.D., docent LevkoM.

 

01.09.2003